The Legend of Apsara Mera at BAM

This week, the Royal Ballet of Cambodia comes to the Brooklyn Academy of Music, where the company will perform the The Legend of Apsara Mera. This dance epic is made up of two stories, both of them deeply embedded in the Cambodian cultural identity, the Churning of the Sea of Milk, and the Legend of Kambu and Mera. Both are foundation myths: one about the creation of the universe, the other about the birth of the Khmer. They will be interpreted in the highly codified, graceful language of Cambodian classical dance, an art form which almost disappeared during the period of the Khmer Rouge (1975-1979). Now, after years of painstaking reconstruction, the nation’s dance culture has been restored. It faces what is perhaps a more insidious threat: modern life.

I wrote a little introduction to  Cambodian dance for the BAM program. You can read it here.

Souleymane Badolo’s Dance of Sadness (for DanceTabs)

 Souleymane Badolo with Cynthia Oliver Boom!, Barack, and Buudou, Badoo, Badolo New York, New York Live Arts 22 April 2013 NYLA bio page www.newyorklivearts.org Dance of Sadness The nineteenth-century choreographer August Bournonville wrote of dance that it was “essentially an expression of joy, a desire to follow the rhythms of the music.” The body, especially when moving to the accompaniment of music, conveys this feeling of exultation, of momentary transcendence. This is paradoxically true even when the underlying feeling being expressed is something other than joy. Then, the audience experiences both emotions at once: the joy of the body in motion, colored by whatever emotion is being evoked through the choreography. The greater the dancer, the more stirring the joy. Or so I thought, until I saw Souleymane Badolo dancing two solos of his own making, Barack and Buudou, Badoo, Badolo, at New York Live Arts. Badolo, who was born and raised in Burkina Faso and who performed for several years in a company specializing in traditional African dance (DAMA), is a marvelously articulate, muscular, dancer. He dances with his whole body, his head, his feet, his back, his chest, even the tips of his fingers. His movements are full of detail and texture and sensuality, peppered with sudden changes of tempo and force. And yet, at least in these works, his dancing, though beautiful and sometimes outwardly euphoric, expresses almost no joy. It is as if it had been steeped in a deep sadness, a sadness that cannot be washed away. By dancing, he seems to will himself to pleasure. He never quite gets there.   The evening opened with a short work, Boom!, by another choreographer, Cynthia Oliver, a duet for herself and the younger Leslie Cuyjet. Both are African American, both play around with the truisms of the sassy, extroverted black woman, commenting on each other’s moves (“get it girl”) or dressing down an invisible partner (“I’m a rough you up! I’m a knock you down!”), all with a twinkle in the eye. As they go in and out of sync with each other, isolated gestures become movement phrases, often tinged with a Caribbean lilt. The leitmotif is the intimacy that can exist between two women; they love each other, even when they drive each other crazy. The two embrace for a long time, occasionally switching positions until these shifts, too, become dancerly motifs. It’s a slight piece, but not without charm.   Leslie Cuyjet and Cynthia Oliver in Boom!.© Ian Douglas. (Click image for larger version) Leslie Cuyjet and Cynthia Oliver in Boom!. © Ian Douglas. (Click image for larger version) Badolo writes in the program that Barack (which means “greeting” in his native language of Gurunsi) was conceived as an offering to his adopted country – the US – and the people who have helped him along the way. (He has lived here since 2009.) “What can I give to America?” he asks. But this “greeting” of his is not given lightly. He begins by bowing, slowly and ceremoniously, in an elegant fourth position, arms held out decorously almost in the manner of an eighteenth-century courtier. It’s a strange image; this compact, muscular man, wearing skin-tight, bright red trousers and a yellow hoodie, open at the chest, bowing slowly at center stage, then stage right, stage left. His face, especially his eyes, express total desolation. Then Edith Piaf’s powerful, rasping voice rings out: “Rien de rien, je ne regrette rien.” I regret nothing. Badolo moves his arms, powerful and vulnerable at once, fluttering, undulating them almost like wings, fingers trembling. It begins to look like a kind of idiosyncratic, private Dying Swan. “Je me fous du passé,” Piaf proclaims, almost angrily: “I don’t give a damn about the past.” But this dance is all about the past. Ripples pass through Badolo’s torso, he sweeps his arms, he rounds his muscular back; it is as if his personal history were passing through him. For a long time he hops on one leg, ducking and twisting his upper body, as if trying to keep a soccer ball in play. The song stops and he continues, now accompanied only by the sound of his own breathing. Remarkably, his movements – balances on the tips of his toes while leaning back, wild sweeps of the arms, jumps, hummingbird fingers – have a musicality of their own. One can see the African sources, which he has turned into a personal language, a vocabulary that, while not vast, never feels empty. He is fascinating to watch.   Souleymane Badolo in Barack.© Ian Douglas. (Click image for larger version) Souleymane Badolo in Barack. © Ian Douglas. (Click image for larger version) Toward the end of the piece, an upbeat, syncopated song begins to play. The music is irresistible, made for dancing. It’s by Tabu Ley Rochereau, the Congolese afropop singer, known as “The Voice of Lightness.” Rochereau popularized soukous, a mix of Congolese folk, Cuban rumba, and American soul. Badolo begins to gyrate his hips, shake his shoulders, with his back to the audience. Finally, a kind of release. He turns around, and for a moment, a look of total despair crosses his face; he pulls at his skin, his chest. And then the shadow passes; he keeps dancing, as if willing himself to happiness. He embraces a woman in the audience, shakes another one’s hand, moves his behind very close to a man’s face. And then, suddenly, he’s gone. It’s an offering, but not one that comes easily.   Souleymane Badolo in Souleymane Badolo in Buudou, Badoo, Badolo. Photo by Ian Douglas.

Souleymane Badolo in Souleymane Badolo in Buudou, Badoo, Badolo. Photo by Ian Douglas.

I saw Souleymane Badolo last night at New York Live Arts. He performed two solos, Barack and Buudou, Badoo, Badolo. Both addressed issues of past and present, and both were steeped in a thick sadness that was hard to throw off, even after the evening had ended. What has happened to this man that makes him so profoundly sad, I wondered as I let the theatre? At the same time, he is a remarkable dancer,  who can make every muscle in his body dance, down to the tips of his fingers. Here’s my review, for DanceTabs.

And a short excerpt: “It’s a strange image; this compact, muscular man, wearing skin-tight, bright red trousers and a yellow hoodie, open at the chest, bowing slowly at center stage, then stage right, stage left. His face, especially his eyes, express total desolation. Then Edith Piaf’s powerful, rasping voice rings out: “Rien de rien, je ne regrette rien.” I regret nothing. Badolo moves his arms, powerful and vulnerable at once, fluttering, undulating them almost like wings, fingers trembling.”

Dance Impressions: Youth America Grand Prix gala, Ballet Next, Kafka’s Monkey, Degas Dances, American Bolero Dance Company

Nina Ananiashvili's "Dying Swan." Picture taken from her website.
Nina Ananiashvili’s “Dying Swan.” Picture taken from her website.

Two Dying Swans in a week might seem like two too many—it probably is—but I’m surprised at how my outlook changed when one of the two happened to be a performance by Nina Ananiashvili, making a brief, characteristically self-possessed appearance at the Youth America Grand Prix gala. This year’s gala—“Stars of Today Meet the Stars of Tomorrow”—was held at the Koch Theatre, on April 18. And yes, Mr. Koch was there, in the flesh, surveying the theatre renovated with his money and the crop of young dancers before him. What does he think about as he sits there in the dark, I wonder? Was he privately gloating over the defeat, earlier in the day, of legislation calling for expanded background checks for gun-buyers?

But I digress. The gala followed its usual format—kids in the first half, international stars in the second—but felt more polished than in previous years. There was a lively host (Mark Wahlberg, of the television series Antiques Road Show), a lighter lineup of acts, and live music. The pieces were introduced by well-edited filmed interviews. Various commissioned pieces were sprinkled between the obligatory ballet chestnuts. The opening number was an impressive—and diminutive—violin prodigy, Elli Choi, just eleven or twelve, dispatching the showy Carmen Fantasy. Not only did Choi play a dizzying number of notes, extending to the very limit of her instrument’s range, but she created an impressively rich, confident sound, surprising in someone so tiny. And her party dress! It was brick red and had an enormous silver bow in the back. These prodigies are such a mystery. Where does the confidence and physical prowess come from? Has she ever seen Carmen? Does she know what it’s about? Does she care?

The Grand Défilé. Photo by Liza Voll Photography.
The Grand Défilé. Photo by Liza Voll Photography.

As usual, the first part of the show was both impressive and slightly depressing. The kids, all medal-winners in the YAGP competition, ranged in age from ten to nineteen, and were, as always, very accomplished. Technically, they were, if not flawless, near-perfect. I’m not sure I’ve ever seen anyone land in a perfect fifth position after every jump with such regularity as Joo Won Ahn (age nineteen, gold in the senior division) from South Korea. Jorge Barani, a Cuban studying at the Magaly Suarez school in Florida, nailed his solo from Flames of Paris, three-hundred-and-sixty-degree barrel-jumps and all, staring at the audience all the while. The few wobbles in the routines came as almost a relief, a sign that even with constant rehearsal, some things are still subject to the randomness of the moment. I hope all of these kids will go on to marvelous careers and have the chance to discover the joy, and freedom, of real dancing, of communicating emotion and expressing music through movement in the company of other dancers. The three most touching moments of the evening were Lada Sartakova’s charming “Clown Variation” (set to the music Ashton used for the coda of his “Pas de Quatre” in the third act of Swan Lake), Lou Spichtig’s solo from the first act of Giselle, and the grand défilé, put together by the in-house choreographer, Carlos dos Santos. Sartakova, because, despite being slightly behind the beat the entire time (in the Russian manner), this ten-year-old silver-medalist was so leggy and gleefully child-like, with her lopsided hat and long spindly legs, that you couldn’t help but be won over. Spichtig (gold medal), because, at fifteen she showed inklings of a real emotional response to the music and an all-too-human fragility, the very qualities that draw one to the character of Giselle. And the grand défilé because, well, how can one not be filled with joy at the sight of hundreds of kids (some incredibly tiny) dancing in near unison, arms and legs filling every centimeter of the stage?

Teresa Reichlen and Tyler Angle. Photo by Liza Voll Photography.
Teresa Reichlen and Tyler Angle. Photo by Liza Voll Photography.

Then, came the stars. The ever-dapper Clifton Brown, accompanied by a jazz quartet, did a suave little number (by Fredrick Earl Mosley) to Paul Desmond’s Take 5.  Svetlana Lunkina, from the Bolshoi, a somewhat dour (and out of place) rendition of Nikiya’s pleading dance from the betrothal scene of La Bayadère. (But where was the rubber snake?) The winning duo of Viengsay Valdés and Osiel Gouneo—the highligt of National Ballet of Cuba’s stint at BAM a few years back—danced a cutesy, pseudo-Latin number by Peter Quanz set to monotonous, vaguely syncopated music by David Lang. (But when is Lang’s music not monotonous?) The hit-or-miss young female ballet choreographer Emery LeCrone created a pleasant, free-flowing pas de deux (on pointe, for once) for the luminous Teresa Reichlen and Tyler Angle, both of New York City Ballet. The musical accompaniment, a Bach partita, was played live, by the pianist Vassily Primakov.  Chase Finlay of City Ballet, who looks more authoritative with each performance, performed a solo created for him by Marcelo Gomes, Tous les Jours, a self-conscious meditation on the torments of the dancer’s lot: daily class, the barre, exercises, etc. It was like a cross between The Lesson, Études, Prodigal Son, and Apollo, with a healthy dose of explosive jumps mixed in with crouches and crawling on the floor. In any case, Finlay, who performed bare-chested (the better to see his torment), gave it his all. The kids in the top tiers of the theatre nearly blew the roof off.

Dorothée Gilbert and Marcelo Gomes. Photo by Liza Voll Photography.
Dorothée Gilbert and Marcelo Gomes. Photo by Liza Voll Photography.

One of the best moments of the night, to my eye, was Kenneth MacMillan’s balcony scene from Romeo and Juliet, danced by Marcelo Gomes (beyond ardent as Romeo) and the gloriously unmannered Dorothée Gilbert, of the Paris Opéra Ballet. She danced with a purity of line and lack of melodrama—clearly delighted to be partnered by Gomes—that made the scene look newly minted. A low point: Wayne McGregor’s acrobatically unflattering “Borderlands Pas de Deux,” with sentimental music by Joel Cadbury and Paul Stoney. It wasn’t the dancers’ fault. They, or rather she (Maria Kochetkova) did not stint on the hyper-extended, raw, contorted poses and relentless, flailing steps that flow unabated from McGregor’s imagination. (Lonnie Weeks, her partner, had less to do, but acquitted himself admirably in the impossibly knotty partnering.) Unfortunately, I will not soon forget the final image, of Weeks grasping Kochetkova’s thighs in a suspended pas de chat in front of him, as if trying to pull her groin in half. McGregor’s relentless dislocation for the natural line of the body is something I can never quite get used to.

The closing number was the compulsory slave pas de trois from Le Corsaire, with Misa Kuranaga (rather dry), Alejandro Virelles (an effective if unexciting Ali), and Herman Cornejo (Conrad). Cornejo was not quite on his game, but no matter. The high point, for me, was one of the slightest items of the evening, a cameo by Nina Ananiashvili in The Dying Swan, alongside the Jookin’ master Lil Buck. It was a gimmick, for sure, meant to highlight the strange convergence of two completely different dance styles. Both went for maximum effect: Buck hovered on the toe of his sneakers forever, Ananiashvili rippled her arms like a snake in heat. It was fabulous. Ananiashvili still has that wonderful combination of qualities that always made her such an appealing dancer: warmth, intelligence, a sense of humor, crazy musicality. Her dancing reveals an absolute confidence and self-knowledge. She knows Dying Swan is a cliché, and she embraces it for all it’s worth, and lets us in on the joke. But it’s not so completely tongue-in-cheek that it’s not moving. In fact, a surge of real emotion surprised me as she raised her creamy, moonbeam arm one last time. Buck, upstaged for once, was nonetheless a willing partner in this tour-de-force. Both are generous, musical, completely natural stage animals, and the rapport between them was evident. Of course they would get along.

And just for fun, here is a video of Nina Ananiashvili performing the infamous thirty-fouettées from Swan Lake:

***

Georgina Pazcoguin and Charles Askegard in "Stravinsky Divertimento." Photo by Paul B Goode.
Georgina Pazcoguin and Charles Askegard in “Stravinsky Divertimento.” Photo by Paul B Goode.

The evening before (April 17), I had seen an example of just how tired this swan number can look. BalletNext held two performances at the Brooklyn Academy of Music’s Fishman Space. (The small theatre was half empty.) The good news is that most of the ballets were accompanied by an excellent musical ensemble. The troupe’s commitment to live music is a real rarity, to be celebrated. But of course the music is only half of the story. From what I saw (I had to leave at intermission because of a coughing fit) the choreography did not hold up its side of the bargain. What really weighed things down was the feeling that BalletNext is not yet an ensemble, but rather an assortment of part-time collaborators. Each of its two founders, Charles Askegard and Michele Wiles, seems to be on his or her own trajectory. There’s the New York City Ballet contingent and the American Ballet Theatre team. Askegard (formerly of City Ballet) danced in one work, which he created for himself and Georgina Pazcoguin (of NYCB), a sprightly Balanchine-esque scherzo set to Stravinsky. Wiles danced in everything else, except the aforementioned Dying Swan, which was performed by a guest, Misty Copeland, of American Ballet. Another guest, Alexandre Hammoudi (also ABT) filled in as Wiles’ partner in Mea Culpa, a pretty, but insubstantial pas de cinq by a young choreographer (Tobin Eason), set to a Mozart piano sonata. An excerpt of Brian Reeder’s “Different Homes”—a pas de deux for Wiles and the very intense Jens Weber set to a suite for cello by Benjamin Britten—was the most substantive, and most musically interesting, piece of the evening. I’d like to see it in its entirety. Reeder shows off Wiles’s still impressive technique, her almost preternatural balance, easy turns, and beautiful arms. Why did she retire so early from ABT, I still wonder? Perhaps no choreographer ever managed to awaken her imagination. She dances as if trapped in her own world. Copeland’s rendition of Fokine’s avian solo was studied and filled with forced touches that made her look uncomfortable. It made absolutely no case for why Dying Swan is still such a constant in the ballet repertory. BalletNext’s dancers are all good, but is that enough? I wish Michele Wiles and Charles Askegard well, but for BalletNext to survive and thrive they will need to figure out what, exactly, they want their company to be.

The original dying swan, Anna Pavlova:

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Kathryn Hunter in "Kafka's Monkey," at BAC.
Kathryn Hunter in “Kafka’s Monkey,” at BAC.

Earlier the same day, I watched an extraordinary performance by Kathryn Hunter in the one-woman-show Kafka’s Monkey (at the Baryshnikov Arts Center). Hunter, who has performed such cross-gender roles as Richard III and King Lear (and collaborated often with Peter Brook), here plays the cross-species role of a chimpanzee who has learned to imitate human behavior and speech. The monologue, based on Kafka’s A Report to an Academy, a short story published in the German magazine Der Jude in 1919, is the bildungsroman of an ape hunted down in Africa and brought back to Europe by ship. Along the way, he learns to ape human behavior, drink rum, even speak. This education allows him to live freely among men, performing in music hall shows and becoming, in a way, the toast of the town. The monologue describes the psychological process behind the transformation—motivated by the desire for freedom—but also, quite transparently, satirizes the brutal nature of the human beings he imitates. Red Peter has been shot at, prodded, and turned into an alcoholic by his fellow men. The consciousness of his degraded state is a source of both revulsion (for humans, for himself) but also of a kind of wounded pride. (The story, which has been interpreted as a parable of Jewish assimilation, reminds me of a moment in the musical Cabaret. In If You Could See Her, a man sings to his sweetheart, a giant gorilla, ending his ballad with the words, “If you could see her through my eyes, she wouldn’t look Jewish at all.” Creepy, yes? Assimilation and its discontents.)

Kathryn Hunter.
Kathryn Hunter.

Kafka’s Monkey is a total bravura performance. Hunter, a tiny woman, not young, is able to completely transform herself—her gait, the way she carries her arms, her face—into something not quite human, filled with an energy that is almost frightening. She dangles her right arm from her shoulder with a range of motion more suited to swinging from trees than to walking upright. She climbs up a ladder on the side of the stage and hangs from it by one leg. She crouches and leaps and screams chimpanzee noises, scratches an ear. Demonstrating Red Peter’s vaudeville exploits, she tap dances (another reminder of Cabaret) and lifts one leg to her ear, then slides down into a split. She also interacts—with disarming spontaneity— with the audience, prodding a few of the spectators for reactions. On the day I went, a woman in the first row refused to play along (out of shyness or reticence, who knows), but Hunter would not let her off the hook, keeping at it until she got a reaction. Later, she referred back to the incident: “she doesn’t like anything, that one.” Despite the datedness of the material—the idea that humanity is rotten inside does not feel that revelatory these days—Hunter gave a performance that was completely alive, of the moment.

***

Mia Potter in "Degas Dances" at the Frick. Photo by Lucas Chilczuk.
Mia Potter in “Degas Dances” at the Frick. Photo by Lucas Chilczuk.

It seems like every museum is trying to come up with ways of integrating dance into its activities. The latest is the Frick Collection, one of my favorite spots in the city, housed in the Beaux Arts residence of Henry Clay Frick, legendary financier of New York’s Gilded Age. On April 18-20, the museum hosted “Degas Dances,” an evening inspired by Degas’s The Rehearsal—the painting hangs in the East Gallery—in which four Paris Opéra dancers stretch their legs to the side while a violinist accompanies their efforts. As we entered the gallery, a woman (impersonating Mary Cassatt in another Degas painting, Mary Cassatt at the Louvre) sat on a banquette reading a guidebook. Ms. Cassatt (played by the Frick employee Olivia Powell) looked extremely fetching in her black flounces, narrow waist, and wide velvet hat. (The dress could have come straight down from the Metropolitan Museum’s “Impressionism, Fashion, and Modernity” show, but was in fact from TDF Costume Collection.) In the museum’s small, round music room—walls lined in faded yellow silk damask—a ballerina (Kristen Stevens) in nineteenth-century gauzy tutu and velvet choker stretched at an old-fashioned barre, accompanied by a violinist (Michael Roth). Roth played bits from Sylvia, Coppélia, and Bizet’s L’Arlésienne; she did her tendus. Then, Clinton Luckett, a ballet master from ABT, entered, dressed impeccably in white, tapped his cane, and gave a few instructions. He was meant to represent Jules Perrot, the choreographer of Giselle.  A blonde waif (Mia Potter), dressed like Degas’s Little Dancer, observed and asked questions. “Can I be a ballerina?” Then Luckett and Stevens danced a few excerpts from ballets of the late nineteenth century repertory. At moments, it was magical, like waking up in a Parisian ballet studio, circa 1870, or, better yet, in a Degas painting. The illusion was broken, however, by the somewhat clunky text–composed, with obvious didactic intent, by the museum staff with input from the performers. Still, it’s a charming idea, worth developing.

Mary (Olivia Powell) and Lydia Cassatt (Katie Steiner). Photo by Lucas Chilczuk.
Mary (Olivia Powell) and Lydia Cassatt (Katie Steiner). Photo by Lucas Chilczuk.

***

Gabriela Granados (in green), Juan Siddi and Aurora Reyes of American Bolero Dance Company.
Gabriela Granados (in green), Juan Siddi and Aurora Reyes of American Bolero Dance Company.

Last but not least, I attended a flamenco tablao presented by the American Bolero Dance Company, at a social club, the Chian Federation, in Queens. As usual, it was an informal affair, put together through the efforts of Gabriela Granados, dancer, teacher, and tireless impresario. The first half was devoted to her students and an energetic salsa duo, Karla Choko and Franklin Liranzo (Liranzo’s plunging neckline was, itself, a showstopper).  But it was after the intermission that things really got going. The excellent young cantaor Félix de Lola, sang a slow, brooding seguiriya, accompanied only by the guitar of Basilio Georges. Granados, dressed all in black, head covered with a mantón (as if in mourning), gave a dramatic recitation of García Lorca’s “Romance de la Pena Negra,” eyes flashing as she intoned “¿Y a ti qué se te importa? / Vengo a buscar lo que busco, mi alegría y mi persona.” Then she danced an earthy soleá, dipping and turning, fearless in her sadness. Aurora Reyes, a force of nature, sang an upbeat number about toreros in her strong, brazen voice, while also dancing, her small, solid frame exploding with vigor. (One of the great things about flamenco is that it’s not just for the young and lithe. In some ways, the dancing improves with age, as all inhibitions melt away.) The final number was for La Conja, an eagle-eyed master of rhythm, whose syncopated footwork and claps carved their way into the interstices of the music. The momentum of her solo (a soleá por bulería)  grew and grew, until the whole stage was swept up in the flame of her dancing. This was not a night of virtuosos, but something far more rare: real people, masters of a specific tradition, really dancing.

Crocodile Tales: Khmer Arts Ensemble at the Joyce (for DanceTabs)

Khmer Arts Ensemble in "A Bend in the River," by Sophiline Cheam Shapiro. Photo by Khvay Samnang.
Khmer Arts Ensemble in “A Bend in the River,” by Sophiline Cheam Shapiro. Photo by Khvay Samnang.

As part of the Season of Cambodia festival in New York, the Khmer Arts Ensemble performed Sophiline Cheam Shapiro’s “A Bend in the River” at the Joyce. Shapiro’s dance-drama draws upon the traditions of Cambodian Classical Dance—elegant shapes, refined hand gestures, codified positions—and combines them with a story drawn from folklore and an original score that extends the range of the pin peat orchestra. Like Prokofiev’s Peter and the Wolf, it is a story told on many levels: through narration, music, and movement. You can read my review for DanceTabs here.

And here’s a short excerpt: “Once in a while, a real modernizer comes along and shakes things up more radically. In the realm of Cambodian dance, it is Sophiline Cheam Shapiro….In past works she has combined the vocabulary of classical Cambodian dance…to stories like The Magic Flute and music by Western composers, including the New York experimentalist, John Zorn….With A Bend in the River…she has come up with a hybrid form that needs no justification.”

The Return of Dance Theatre of Harlem (for DanceTabs)

Michaela DePrince and Sam Wilson of Dance Theatre of Harlem. Photo by  Matthew Murphy.
Michaela DePrince and Sam Wilson of Dance Theatre of Harlem. Photo by Matthew Murphy.

Dance Theatre of Harlem is back, after a hiatus of almost ten years. You can read my review of one of their programs, for DanceTabs, here.

And here’s a short excerpt:

“What is the place of a predominantly black American ballet company today, in our supposedly “post-racial” America? We have a black president and a black ambassador to the United Nations, and yet, if one looks at most of our ballet companies, there is nary a black dancer to be seen….The problem is more frustrating than simple racism.”